Terrestrial microwaves are the most common form of long-distance communication. Satellite microwaves involve sending transmissions between two or more earth-based microwave stations and a satellite. It is used for television, radio, telephone, and internet connections.
A terrestrial microwave is an antenna that sends and receives radio waves. It’s used to transmit data over long distances, usually between two fixed points on the Earth's surface. The antennas are usually parabolic, with diameters ranging from 12 inches to several feet, depending upon their spacing.
They can be mounted on buildings or towers, but in some cases, they may be ground-mounted if the line of sight conditions exist between them. Terrestrial microwaves are widely used for point-to-point communications because they provide high bandwidth and cover long distances without requiring repeaters. Microwave frequencies typically range from 4 GHz to 30 GHz (4–30 billion Hz).
Because of point-to-point communication, terrestrial microwaves can carry signals across long distances without significant loss of signal power over that distance. This means that it is possible to communicate with a base station from tens, hundreds, or even thousands of miles away using high-gain antennas at both ends of the link.
The major drawback to this type of transmission is that it requires a direct line of sight between transmitters and receivers, limiting its use for mobile applications like cell phones where users move into areas blocked by obstacles such as hills or buildings.
In addition, rain attenuation affects all radio waves, including microwaves, so these systems have limited use in rainy weather. However, when conditions are favorable, there can be an advantage in path diversity since microwaves will typically follow a less steeply sloping path than optical signals, which makes them better able to penetrate inclement weather such as fog and heavy rain. In contrast, optical signals tend to be absorbed by water droplets leading to poor performance during bad weather events. Terrestrial microwaves also do not require expensive towers but only need small masts about 15 feet tall at each.
In summary, terrestrial microwave transmission uses point-to-point communication to transmit data over large distances. This is done using stations on earth and a satellite. The only drawback is that it works via line of sight, which isn’t suitable for mobile users. Otherwise, it is an efficient and cheap communication network.
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